Buenos Aires was founded twice. The first was by the
Spanish Don Pedro de Mendoza in the year 1536 and it was called Santa Maria
del Buen Ayre. It is believed that the place of the foundation was the la
Vuelta de Rocha ( La Boca), although some people claim that possibly, it was
in Lezama Park (San Telmo), place that could be reached by the river at that
time. The city was abandoned and scorched by the Indians in 1541.
Its second and final foundation dates back to 1580 by Juan de Garay, who
called it the Holy Trinity. This time, it took place on higher grounds in
the vicinity of the Plaza de Mayo.
Finally, the city was called directly Buenos Aires, and the natives of the
Buenos Aires had little development until in 1776 it was named the capital of the
Viceroyalty of the Rio de la Plata. Since then, it began to evolve rapidly
due to the push of the trade that benefited it, developing economic and
culturally as well. The arrival of the liberal ideas and basically the
occupation of Spain by the Napoleonic army, unleashed in 1810 the May
Revolution which had the epicenter at the City Council of Buenos Aires. The
independence of Argentina was proclaimed in 1816 in Tucuman.
In 1860 Buenos Aires began underwent its definite organization, growing under the influence of the European immigration and the displacement of the local rural population, and in 1880 it was declared the Federal Capital of Argentina.
After the reform of the Argentine Constitution in 1994, the city could have its own Constitution and an autonomous government chosen through direct election.
In 1996, elections were held and the head of City Government and the legislators who created the Constitution of the City were elected.
During the twentieth century, a large population growth ranked it among the world's largest cities. This was not just due to the demographic growth but also due to the artistic, cultural and economic developments which constantly take place here.
The capital, known as Autonomous City of the Government of Buenos Aires, is
surrounded by the province of Buenos Aires and Rio de la Plata, and is
divided into 48 districts.
The official religion is the Roman Catholic, represented by a large number of churches, but there is complete freedom of worship, illustrated by the presence of the central synagogue of the Jewish religion, the only venue where rabbis from around the world are formed and the Mosque of Palermo, the largest Islamic temple in Latin America.