The word Pampa (plain or flat place) designates natives of Argentina plain and starts using no earlier than 1600.
During the sixteenth century, a small displacement of indigenous communities (querandíes and tehuelches) who lived in nomadic way like hunters, gatherers and fishermen, looking for the best weather conditions and using existing resources to cover, feeding and arming their whereabouts with skins of guanaco, rhea and other minor species, like the hare and fox.
Competition for livestock, the need for incorporation of labor, and dominion over the earth, originated the progress of settlers on the Indians while evangelizing action of the Church instituted Reductions were introduced.
Constants innings against the Indians (longhouses, brokerages and pacifications) were violently repelled (raids). An alliance between different indigenous nations (1659) takes a decidedly cross the Salado River and assault the stay located in the north of the same.
A general Indians census in 1677 gives some idea of peace, but new incursions at the north of Salado leads authorities to legally start the “long war” border strife culminating two centuries later with the campaign of General Roca.
The relations between Indians and whites will increasingly more strained (late seventeenth century to the mid-eighteenth century) further compounded by an abrupt introduction of the Araucanians of Chilean origin.
The incorporation of the horse during the seventeenth century, and the proliferation of cattle introduced by the Spaniards, transformed the indigenous culture. More territory was occupied, the social organization became more complex, the institution of chieftaincy blasted his leadership to numerous bands with a special organization for war from the use of new offensive weapons (spear replacement to the traditional bow and arrow) and defense (armor horsehide). Economic activities began to have predatory characteristics, because bands approached the villages to steal cattle at that time flooded grasslands.
Feral animals led origin to the first organized livestock, the Vaquerías (1600 – 1750), veritable hunts cows to extract from them the leather, tallow and grease.
This purely extractive attitude led to widen the gap to continue hunting animals and try to develop an incipient livestock and led to penetrate into “Indian Territory”, expanding settlements, and give rise to an interest in land and the creation of the colonial stays (1750-1810).
There were four ways to become a rancher: By the mercy of the king, including purchase by public auction or pecuniary composition.
So stays became an overview of past and present agricultural livestock. The building and architectural style is determined by events in the history of our country. On one side are the stays of historical profile, built between 1870 and 80, during the conquest of the desert, to serve for defense. These helmets were near rivers, perimeter fence, sheltered courtyard, thick walls and high fences. By contrast, from 1880 until the end of XIX, during the time of economic might, under strong European influence, born English castles and Spanish farms characterized by the presence of Renaissance helmets, artistically lattice windows, interior furnishings acclimated luxury of the time, wide galleries, patios with ponds and large wooded parks.
Leaving the city, the landscape becomes plain and green pastures. Here we go ranches, farms, cottages, crops and woodland walks, participate in traditional gaucho parties, sharing rounds mates, witness folk and creole skill shows in the evening as dressage, the erring, the stove and guitar playing, while savor an exquisite style barbecue under the stars. But knowing the rural environment involves not just do it as a spectator but as the protagonist of the tasks and activities as indicated herding cattle, sheep shearing, being a participant in field work, milking a cow, collecting honey, homemade bread kneading, feeding animals livestock or cheese manufacturing. You can also go horseback riding, sulky or carts, enjoy sports courts and swimming pools.
THE GAUCHO´S FIGURE
Although it was used throughout the River Plate – and even in Brazil – there is no absolute certainty about the origin of the word gaucho. The term was generally applied to creole element (children of Spanish) or mestizo (children of Spanish and Indian), but with not in a racial way but ethnic as gauchos were also children of european immigrants, blacks and mulattoes who accepted his class life.
The real name of gaucho emerges in 1810, ie when the rail network appeared, result of European immigration that colonized our country, is here when the gaucho´s figure take prominence, a free and independent character, skilled riders, useful and skillful for raising livestock and rural jobs like errs, harness and slaughter. They were characterized by their physical prowess, pride and a reserved and melancholy nature.
However the gaucho existed long before and therefore we can say that lived an evolutionary process which led to the existence of different types of gauchos who lived in our country. Undoubtedly, the gaucho who really had peculiar physiognomy, the first one, was the nomadic gaucho, not criminal, it was implicit in the eastern gaudério of s. XVIII. This gaucho was more than just a bum who stays away to go to the dairy “expeditions were organized to leverage chúcaros loose animals grazing on the plains and acquired in Argentina, along the s. XIX, traits well defined.
Then the gaucho farmhand was born when the first ranch houses emerged, although they were few at first and it was this type which enhanced the figure. Almost all tasks were performed on horseback, animal which was his best mate and all their wealth. The launch of the loop, dressage and ranch rodeo, hiking, were made by these riders, who did the horse his best instrument. He was the man of our field, main stage of his legendary and real life. Lonely life and in groups of stores, as the nomadic tribes already in racheríos isolated as in the southern pampas.
The land of the gaucho was the plain extending from Patagonia to the eastern borders of Argentina, reaching the state of Rio Grande do Sul, em Brazil (gaúcho). Thus arose peoples that have spread throughout the Buenos Aires provincial territory and still retain their properties and keep their traditions alive, present in their festivals, architectural preservation and rural activities who was breaking his vices from shops, practiced his love for the game, horse races and cockfights, always with his machete.
Materials like silver, leather, touch, rope, wicker, woven loom, ceramics, wood, horns and animal bones can become wonders in the hands of artisans who live in these places, where you can visit their workshops and learn the working techniques, preserved from their ancestors as a symbol of continuity and evaluation of this cultural expression that is creating crafts.
An experience that feelings and emotions are the protagonists of this story !!!