The Puelches-Guenaken native communities are the ones that appear to have all around this part of the Buenos Aires Province around the mountainous systems of Ventania and Tandilia. Viceroy Juan Jose de Vertiz sent an expedition to the South which reached Tandil and two years later crossed over the mountains and a detailed description was made of a dry stone corral discovered around the Chapaleofu Stream which illustrates the presence of ethnic settlements who lived around the area.
Provincial Governor Brigadier Martin Rodriguez founds the Independence Fort (the current Tandil) 4 April 1823 which became a crucial step in order to secure the lands in the region and later obtain even more land.
The Partido of Chapaleofu is born politically in 1839 on the historic base of what was until then known as El Tandil, and coincided with attacks from the natives. The First Neighbours Commission in Tandil was formed in 1850 to assist the local judge. Tandil is elevated by Church canonic law to Parish of the Holy Sacrament in 1854 whilst the first chapel was being constructed.
The region still suffers attacks from the natives until 1879 when General Julio A. Roca organizes and carries out his Campaign to the desert and, in 1883 the Railways arrived in Tandil and this produces an economic growth explosion. By 1895 the proportion between “Criollo” and foreign immigrants had varied dramatically with close to 40% of the Tandil population being European immigrants, and, Tandil is declared a City 23 October 1895.
The first Public and private constructions begin to appear in the 1910s such as th Municipal Palce and the borders of the main Plaza. The famous Moving Rock falls 29 February 1912. The discussion for the construction of a new dam starts in 1958. The dam was built, and it started working in 1961, gathering the waters from the so-called Arroyo del Fuerte River and a lake was formed which was later to become a popular fishing spot, a place apt for nautical sports, a residential area and a beautification of the landscape.
An amphitheatre was built with engraved stone stands on one of the sides at Independence Park resulting in an exceptional artistic place. The University of Tandil was nationalized in 1975 with the creation Universidad Nacional del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires (UNCPBA).